A broad range of problems are covered by these environment based agreements. Moreover, the relationship among processes of ecology, the developments of economic and social nature and the related argument over development of sustainability were important to put focus over tensions present between distinct components of international law and international cooperation (Haas, 2010). An example can be quoted here of IEA and agreements of trade or the tension between IEA and the policies of international level in relation to demographics and health.
The most evident part of the new international cooperation focus over environment is the IEA, which has continued to flourish. The IEA formulation along with its implementation are inclusive not only of the governments but also various actors inclusive of environment based groups, businesses, scientific companies (Yoffe et al., 2003). The results are not only international law but also along with forward looking, several global principles implemented within various institutes. Therefore, it becomes possible to argue that the IEA flourishing leads towards multi-layer governance to strengthen, which consists of rules and also provides information on institutes that interact at several levels and involve the actors at governmental level and from the non-government segments (Ostreng, 2005). While these achievements can be viewed as some form of success with its individual rights, issues regarding IEA efficiencies and effectiveness also exist. These issues have hindered the ability to secure the environment through international cooperation. The issues are described in the following paragraph.
The foremost is the issues related to implementing and verification that have proved to involve severity in various situations. These have furthered the significance to prepare more initiatives to be taken for tackling such issues at the agreements formulation stage itself. Issues of distributed nature have proved to have maximum difficulty for handling. These have often led towards hampering the IEA formulation or ratification itself along with leading towards inadequate implementation through some of the involved parties (Harris, 2012). Such issues are at the centre of attempts made for moving from global cooperation focused over environmental pollution mitigation to global cooperation. This should be involved to tackle issues related to resources and development of sustainability in general. This type of transition implies that the strategies taken to mitigate air pollution are not the same as strategies needed to preserve natural resources. Thus, here it implies the need to balance and collaborate with the strategies to secure the entire environmental system. Highly complicated and debated principles comprising of several means are required for tackling the natural resources utilization through nations, industries and even the peer groups varying with regard to institution, position, wealth, capacity and structure.