Speech act theory states that linguistics and ideology of languages is in reality utterances that have a demonstrative function or the meaning of the word and the related communication involved in the discourse . Meaning of a word can be categorized intro three types. They are abstract, contextual meaning and utterance force. It has been found that abstract word refers to the overall context of the word it has ambitious definition. Contextual meaning refers to the context of the word that is spoken. In some cases, the actual utterance of the word can be meaning something else . The acts of sarcasm are an example of how it means how the speech can be different from the actual meaning of the word. In cases of utterance there is speak that is answered based on the context. Any speech act in reality is the performance of many acts at one. It is categorized by the differential aspects of the speakers’ intention. It is the act involved while speaking. It has different tones such as request or granting permission. It also shows how it affects the audience.
According to Austin there should be a number of conventional procedures that should be addressed to include uttering of certain words or certain conditions. In a conversation there should be conventional and traditional procedure to having a certain intended effect (Austin, 2014).
Austin defines permeative act as locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary acts. Speech acts includes a range of activities. Locutionary act is the performances or demonstration that has been involved in the utterance of the world. Locutionary means considering the utterances of the meaningful word. Illocutionary act is the consideration of the socially valid actions that is encompasses with the utterance of the word. There is a element of social context that is considered (Austin, 2014). They can be further classified into direct and indirect speech. Constative and directives are the two kinds of illocutionary act. In this there is affirmation, announcement, seeking advice, asking or forbidding a person in certain other cases there is perlocutionary act (Austin, 2014). It is the act of persuasion, convincing, fear or inspiring people to make the people indulge in acts that are intentional. In other words perlocutionary act is the act that is taken by another speaker as a reaction to what the original speaker states in this situation (Austin, 2014).
Speech act theory concludes that the actual meaning of the word cannot be understood without understanding the social context and the intention of the speaker.