加拿大论文代写-另类媒体和新媒体的作用。从历史上看，另类媒体被认为是反霸权的，简单地说，挑战文化价值观和信仰的主导组合(Curran et al. 2012)。替代媒体的定义，简单地与主流抗衡，一直被认为是有限的。然而，研究替代媒体的现代方法一直在探讨这些媒体的创建地点和方式，以及参与者与负责使用和创建这些媒体的媒体之间的动态关系。方法相关的学术研究在另类媒体把努力理解这些媒体的有意义的方式,每个奠定相关媒体强调不同的方面,包括社会运动所扮演的角色,参与社区公共领域,那里是一个创造的媒体。
Alternative media is referred to as the media that is different from dominant or established categories of media with respect to their content, how the distribution is done or how the production is done. Alternative media end up taking a number of different forms that is not inclusive of but not restricted to street art, internet, and video, audio and print. Some of the examples are inclusive of zones with counter culture in the years of 1960s, indigenous and ethnic media like the television network of First People in Canada, and since recent times, online open sites of publishing journalism like Independent Media Centre also known as Indymedia (Curran and Seaton 2009). On the other hand, mainstream mass media has been representing corporate interest and government, with the tendency of being non- commercial projects advocating the interests over the ones excluding from the mainstream such as GLBTQ identities, feminists, labour groups, and ethnic, political and poor minorities. These broadcasts of media tend to be ignoring or overlooking perceptions like the ones heard within Democracy Now, the progressive program of news, and creating communities over identity. Historically, alternative media have been identified as counter- hegemonic, in simple words, challenging the dominant combination of values and beliefs of culture (Curran et al. 2012). The definition of alternate media, simply countering with mainstream has been considered as limiting. However, modern approaches studying alternative media have been addressing where and how there is creation of these media, along with the dynamic relationship among the participants and the media responsible for using and creating them. A number of approaches related to academic study over alternative media puts in effort for understanding the ways by which there is significance of these media, each laying emphasis on a number of different aspects related to media that includes the role played by social movements, public sphere, and participating the communities where there is a creation of media (Lewes 2005). Ethics of digital media has been dealing with the distinct norms, practices and problems of ethics over digitalized news media. Digital media is inclusive of digital photojournalism, blogging, social media, citizen journalism and online journalism. It is inclusive of doubts regarding how this new media must be used by professional journalism for researching on and publishing stories, along with how there must utilization of images or texts as provided by the citizens. In the phase of revolution, there has been an emergence of new possibilities while there is a threat of old practices. As new technologies are embraced, professional media and journalism can be holding their role as an important lifeline of information, and continuously operating as a tool providing better scope of successful democracy. As the dawn of electronic journalism and information age has approached, the functions of journalists can be seen shifting from transmission of information to processing of information (Negrine 2008).