腐敗風險是指個人憑藉其在組織中的權威或指定而擁有權力的不誠實行為。貪污行為包括收受賄賂，操縱商業交易及帳目，挪用資金及詐騙利益相關者。腐敗風險的產生是由於代理人（管理者）與委託人（利益相關者）之間存在利益衝突。代理人有可能為實現個人目標而損害利益相關者的利益。供應鏈風險是指在制定和實施供應鏈經營管理策略和風險管理方面的無能或失敗。供應鏈風險會導致經營脆弱性，並擾亂業務運營（Christopher and Holweg，2011）。此外，供應鏈風險從生產階段開始到產品最終交付給客戶都可能產生重大的負面影響。
2016年10月，在紐交所（NYSE）上市的巴西飛機製造商巴西航空工業公司（航空工業公司）與美國司法部（DOJ）和美國證交會（SEC）就該公司批准的行賄達成和解。2008年至2011年，該公司在沙特阿拉伯和莫桑比克等多個國家進行賄賂支付。與此相關，美國證券交易委員會和美國司法部對該公司實施了處罰。航空公司使用的備件大致可分為關鍵部件和非關鍵部件兩大類。例如，關鍵部件的複雜性限制了國泰轉向母供應商的能力，因為相關的轉換成本（Klueber and Keefe，2013）。此外，由於零部件複雜，國泰航空無法依賴新的供應商。
Corruption risk refers to dishonest behavior by individuals having power possession by virtue of their authority or designation in an organization. Corruption practices include giving or acceptance of bribes, manipulation of business transactions and books of accounts, fund diversion and defrauding stakeholders. Corruption risk arises since there is conflict of interest between agents (managers) and principal (stakeholders). There exists possibility that agents act in a detrimental manner for the stakeholders for accomplishment of personal objectives. Supply Chain Risk refers to inability or failure in formulation and implementation of supply chain strategies for operational management and risk management. Supply chain risks can result in operational vulnerability and disrupt business operations (Christopher and Holweg, 2011). Moreover, supply chain risk can have material adverse impact starting from production phase to end delivery of the product to the customers.
In October 2016, Embraer, a Brazil-based aircraft manufacturer listed on NYSE entered into resolution with DOJ and SEC in connection to bribe payments approved by the company. The company was engaged in making bribery payments between 2008 through 2011 in different countries including Saudi Arabia and Mozambique. In connection of this matter, SEC and DOJ imposed penalties on the company. Aviation companies use spare parts which can be broadly classified into two categories namely critical and non-critical parts. For example, the complex nature of critical parts restricted Cathay pacific ability to switch to mother suppliers because of associated switching costs (Klueber and Keefe, 2013). Moreover, Cathay pacific could not afford to rely on new suppliers because of complicated parts.