然而，随着全球化的到来，各国之间相互依存。没有限制的自由贸易或贸易概念开始发挥作用。据此，一个国家生产和出口的商品或服务，它是有效的，而进口那些产品是竞争弱势（山，Cronk，& Wickramasekera，2014）。有强烈的辩论，政府干预市场经济的有效运行所需的水平。一些人认为，完全没有政府干预的自由市场机制的运作，是实现贸易的最有效途径的运行如果组织成长的最好方式，喜欢史米斯的理论，李嘉图和Heckscher Ohlin推动自由贸易（山，Cronk，& Wickramasekera，2014）。而其他像重商主义反对自由贸易和比较优势理论，认为国家不应过于依赖进口，导致贸易不平衡的屁股和政府干预的平衡，可以消除或减少它（山，Cronk，& Wickramasekera，2014）。我认为最中性的理论是：波特和新理论有利于有限的政府干预对于经济的健康，因为他们的取向允许自由贸易以及一些政府控制的战略产业的先发优势和规模经济作为进入壁垒（山，Cronk，& Wickramasekera，2014）。
Globalization is a concept which means to integrate the national economies into world economy where anyone can communicate, trade or do anything with any person without any barriers (Kerby, 2005). It has dissolved the local boundaries and made world a global village, with no restriction of choice, products, markets, qualities or any other things, as everything is available to virtually everyone.
However, with globalization comes interdependence amongst nations. The concept of free trade or trade with few restrictions comes in to play. According to it, a country produces and exports goods or services in which it is efficient, while importing those products in which is competitively disadvantaged (Hill, Cronk, & Wickramasekera, 2014).There is strong debate as to the level of government intervention needed to run an efficient market economy. Some argue that absolutely no government interference and workings of free market mechanism is the best way to achieve growth in trade and the most effective and efficient way for the running if organizations, like the theories of Smith, Ricardo and Heckscher-Ohlin promotes liberal trade(Hill, Cronk, & Wickramasekera, 2014). While others like Mercantilism stands against the theories of free trade and comparative advantage, stating that the countries should not rely too heavily on imports, ass it causes balance of trade disequilibrium and government intervention can eliminate or reduce it(Hill, Cronk, & Wickramasekera, 2014). I think the most neutral of the theories are that of Porter and the new theory which favours limited government intervention as healthy for the economy, because of their orientation to allow both free trade as well as some government control over strategic industries where first-mover advantages and economies of scale are used as barriers to entry (Hill, Cronk, & Wickramasekera, 2014).