However, there are also non-probability based methods of sampling such as quota sampling, which first breaks down the population into various groups based on a certain attribute and then samples are taken. Convenience sampling is useful as it considers only those people who have answered the questionnaire. Case control sampling is another such method wherein we select the sample based on opposite sides of an attribute for a set of people.
Post deciding on the sampling methodology, the most important thing is the questionnaire, there are some basic hand rules which are helpful when creating a questionnaire. We should be unambiguous, ask simple and straight forward questions using simple language. There should be a clear purpose to the questions and should be framed to suit the knowledge level of the person answering the question. We should be doing several dry runs of the questionnaire, to get n overall feel and response to the same. Additionally, it’s important to follow up and make the questionnaire as readable and enjoyable to answer as possible. The outcome can also be in different ways, which need to be assimilated before the final analysis. However, the analysis can be of three types (L7: S8):
Univariate: This type of analysis measures variables accurately and in detail
Bivariate: This looks at pairs of dependent or independent variables to reach an outcome
Multivariate: This helps in analyzing the effect of more than one independent variable on a dependent variable
There are additional methods like the factor and cluster analysis, which helps you in either clubbing the variables which are related or in analyzing specific clusters of the samples in inferring on certain attributes.
Also, case narratives are of prime importance as there needs to be multiple perspectives of analyzing the case studies. Interviews are another way of analyzing more deeply towards the general attitude of the sample population. However, even if these methods can provide useful insights towards culture and some attributes which can be missed by just looking at numbers, we need to be careful in summarizing and collating all the feedback, as these tend to be qualitative responses and it is more difficult to compile such responses. One way to better organize data is to have codes demarcating specific chunks of information, so that it can be extracted easily. We also need to be cognizant of the fact if events are recurring and if there is some correlation or similarity between the events. This will help us in draw conclusions and inferences moving forward. The findings should also be in sync with the background research done on the topic. Also, we should be able to distinguish between repeated practices and rituals, meaning that something might have been followed as a rule or something might have just been repeated in the past few days or weeks due to special circumstances. There are different ways also to show the narrative, i.e., the story can be told in multiple ways. It could be either in the form of a drama showing day-to-day activities or it could be in form of a narration by a third person on the account. It could also be as highlighting only the major turning points in the researcher’s mind that has to be displayed in front of the individual. Lastly, the need to summarize the data, collate the findings from the interviews, narratives is crucial. This can be done by a simple quote or using a metaphor to impress upon the audience, the outcome of the research. This representation can be done in various ways 。
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