Liberalism has had the deepest effect on the cities around the world primarily due to its ideology of fair election process, civil rights, providing and accepting all religion and freedom to choose a religion, and conducting free trade in a fair way (Raico, 1992) and providing freedom of press. In a way all people are political thinkers as they think about ‘justice’, ‘rights’, ‘equality’, ‘fairness’, and ‘freedom’ (Heywood, 1992). This implies that even if people are unaware about a particular political philosophy, they unknowingly follow any one of the philosophy. The above words used by people are similar to the ideology of Liberalism. It has given much freedom to people in cities to select their own religion, trade, and way of living. These attributes corresponding to the freedom of choice is the highest freedom allotted to people with which they can make the city of their liking. Marxism has much to contribute as well, because, when liberalism has been an apologetically relating to the capital system as one single system, Marxism has been relating capitalism in a more critical way (Galtung, 1978). Thus Liberalism helps cities to develop in their own way and Marxism provides critical suggestions to enhance their competitiveness.
The urban condition when thought through liberalism tends to be more open due to the liberal way of doing things and conducting business liberally.
There has certainly an existence of a divide between the urban and the poor because of liberal selection of actions, which has encouraged the rich to exploit the poor.
Rawls (1999) emphasizes that political liberty must not be traded and sacrificed with and for freedom of people and civil liberties along with the freedom of conscience.
This is in effect as people are not able to participate freely and equally in political affairs.