多伦多论文代写-学习者“输出”的不同理论分析。简单地说，学习者在学习一门语言过程中的“输出”一词代表了所有鼓励学习者以一种交际方式使用该语言的例子(Gibbons, 2006)。它超越了课堂教学的设置，学生只需写下或说出“输入”提示的正确答案。许多研究者认为学习者的“输出”以积极的方式影响语言学习过程，并鼓励语言教师创造学习者使用目标语言的环境(Halliday, 1993)。监控这些以使用为基础的话语，不仅可以帮助教师衡量学生的学习进度，还可以帮助学习者在语言使用方面建立信心。本文对强调学习者“输出”的不同理论进行了元分析。
In very simple words, the term learner ‘output’ in the process of learning a language stands for all those instances where the learners are encouraged to use the language in a communicative manner (Gibbons, 2006 ). It goes beyond the classroom instruction setting where they just have to write down or speak up right answers to the ‘input’ prompts. Various researchers have argued that learner ‘output’ influences the language learning process in positive manner, and encouraged the language instructors to create environments in which the learners use the target language (Halliday, 1993). Monitoring these usage-based utterances would help the instructors not only measure the progress, but also build confidence among the learners as far as the use of language is concerned. This essay provides a meta-analysis of different theories that emphasize learner ‘output.’
It is important to note that the emphasis on learner ‘output’ critiques the idea of sole emphasis which is given to instructional ‘input’ or the grammatical and semantic information that is fed into the learners in form of classroom lectures. The importance of ‘input’ was significantly put forth by Krashen who said that is a major factor which contributes to successful second language acquisition (Gibbons, 2006 ).
Later scholars extended the concept of input to that of two-way interaction that created the scope for learner ‘output,’ which is an opportunity for the learners to use the language. Interaction among the learners for the purpose of clarification and check tends to improve language acquisition, because it gives a chance to the learners to repeat, even modify the input to make sure that the fellow learner understands what has been said. It is a great way to test their comprehension as well. This is the Interaction Hypothesis by Pica et al. that predates the Output Hypothesis by Merrill Swain (Gibbons, 2006 ).
The Output Hypothesis is the most important theory on learner output which states that using language is a great way to develop fluency, and prevents counterfeit understanding that may result from fake nods or guesswork (Swain, 1995). Swain argued that a learner processes the language more vigorously and comprehensively in the output stage rather than during the input or understanding stage. The theory builds the concept of collaborative dialogue whereby it is posited that ‘language use, and language learning can co-occur.’
According to Swain, learner output serves three functions – noticing the ‘gap’ in their language acquisition, test their hypotheses or knowledge about language use and remodify the sentences on the basis of feedback, and meta-linguistic dimension whereby the learners can internalize the right forms and words within their lexicon (Swain, 1995). Simply put, the language learners talk among themselves and arrive at the correct forms, meanings, and sentences structures.