According to Borg, a well-known philanthropist and an environmental minister, the system of international cooperation has been marked through work of actors at international level. Even though the states in the international law are equal and have sovereignty, they are still far from being similar to be called single unit. They are different to one another not only in terms of resources but also with regard to the position occupied by them on values and beliefs. From his statement, it implied that international cooperation can be regarded as a response of natural nature on the collective action issues and general threats (Haas, 2010). According to him, furthermore, these states cannot be side-lined as there is a role for every state with stakeholders appearing crucial for efficient solutions achievement.
However, international cooperation requires that it is properly supported through rules. This indicates that the international environment protection agreements are such rules that help promote the international cooperation for protecting the environment and securing it.
Until 1970 international cooperation, meant only to have a focus over prevention of war and over growth of economy. Other international cooperation areas such as development of scientific nature and technological innovation were viewed as essential back then, and therefore, international cooperation was needed in this regard. In the year 1972, Human Environment Conference was held within Stockholm and in this summit, international cooperation started to develop for environment security (Imber and Vogler, 2003). For instance, this was the situation with regard to the issue of acid rain. This was a key concern for Stockholm and this issue also became the key focus of majority of efforts made in European cooperation. This led towards long range trans-boundary air pollution convention to develop.
In the context of America, mainly a bilateral dimension was taken up by acid rain and the issue started becoming a perspective of stress with regard to the negotiation between 2 nations, Canada and U.S.
2 decades after the conference of Stockholm, there already were 900 multilateral agreements for the environment with a bilateral dimension associated to them (Yoffe et al., 2003). Additionally, the conference of UN over environment security in the year 1992 was helpful in allowing the creation of connection between protection of the environment and development of social and economic nature. This is a conception which is subjected to distinct definitions with converging nature, but these have a focus over fostering socio-economic equitability and welfare also ensuring to protect and secure the environment. This became an essential component of the landscape of international cooperation. In addition, issues are regarding conflict of acute nature which emerged as a result of depleting natural resources started to be apparent (Ostreng, 2005). This issue became a component of the global landscape of cooperation. Concerns are connected to acute conflict, which additionally emerging as a result of depleting natural resources. It in turn led towards the formation of the environmental security notion to the agenda of international level.
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