在后来的阶段，埃及和安纳托利亚的大部分地区，作为一个帝国和国家来控制肥沃的新月。美索不达米亚北部的一半是巴比伦尼亚，大致被称为亚述，而首都是尼尼微。一个大王国在过去三次被亚述王控制(米勒2009)。这些从公元前20世纪到第15世纪，即公元前15世纪至公元前10年，即公元前911 – 612年，即所谓的新亚述时期或王国。新亚述人是唯一一个被记录在案并且广为人知的时期。
In the later stages, Egypt and much of Anatolia together as an empire and nation came to control the Fertile Crescent. The northern half of the Mesopotamia which was Babylonia was roughly referred to as Assyria Proper of which the capital was Nineveh. A large kingdom was controlled by the Assyrian kings in the past for three times (Miller 2009). These were from 20th to 15th BC known as Old period, 15th to 10th BC known as Middle period and 911-612 BC which was known as Neo-Assyrian period or kingdom. Neo-Assyrian is the only period which is best documented and well-known.
It was near a mountain region that the Assyrian homeland was located. It also extended to high Carduchian or Gordiaean ranges of mountain which are also known as Mountains of Ashur by many. To undermine the walls of the city Assyrians invented excavation by battering the rams so as to known down the gates. They also engaged in the concept of corps of engineers in which they rendered soldiers with inflatable skins for the purpose of swimming and also bridged rivers with pontoons.
The other name assigned to the Assyrians was the Romans of the Ancient World; this was because of the fact that they were very efficient in their military conquests and were cruel and were oppressors too. It was for the largest army in their empire that Persians were well known for (Elat 1978). Because of their numbers they swallowed up the nations which they conquered. On the other hand they were known as the Enlightened Conquerors as they were liberal to allow the nations which were conquered to have some of their laws and cultures. Jews were given an opportunity by them to get back to their nations and rebuild it. The religious beliefs of the nations were tolerated by the Persians.